1. Betts et al. (2014) The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults.
  2. Brown et al. (2021) Eating versus skipping breakfast has no discernible effect on obesity-related anthropometric outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • Eating vs skipping breakfast does not impact fat loss 
  • 6 studies specifically looked at fat mass changes, with ~200 (of total 485) participants
  • Most studies defined skipping breakfast as “first meal after 11 am”
  • No training in all studies, although this is relevant when you train in the morning: then what does skipping breakfast do to your muscle gains?